What European countries allow dual citizenship?

Many people are interested in understanding what dual citizenship is and how to obtain it in European countries. Having this status can bring various benefits, especially when travelling abroad or establishing a business. This article explains the legal peculiarities and benefits of acquiring dual citizenship in European countries. It also lists which EU states permit having it.

Holding dual citizenship means being simultaneously a national of two states. This means that the government legally recognizes the individual's obligations and rights towards the other nation. All European countries have different regulations and policies regarding this status. To obtain it, both the home and destination states must permit holding it. Otherwise, the authorities will require a person to renounce their former passport when immigrating.

European countries, which allow dual citizenship

Some European countries allow second but not dual citizenship, and these statuses vary widely. The success of the process of obtaining a passport depends on the migrants themselves, their reasons for immigration and their individual circumstances. Officials may refuse in certain cases if there are political differences between the states. For information on whether you can obtain this status in the EU, seek advice from competent experts.

Below are listed the European countries that allow having dual citizenship:

  • Cyprus;
  • Portugal;
  • Slovenia;
  • Lithuania;
  • Denmark;
  • Ireland;
  • Czech Republic;
  • Slovakia;
  • France;
  • Luxembourg;
  • Bulgaria;
  • Spain;
  • Finland;
  • Greece;
  • Italy;
  • Romania;
  • Belgium;
  • Croatia;
  • Hungary;
  • Latvia;
  • Sweden ;
  • Germany;
  • Malta;
  • Poland.

The peculiarities of dual citizenship legislation in EU countries

The procedures and grounds for obtaining dual citizenship are unique among European countries. To obtain it, a person must meet the conditions specified in their national legislation. In certain EU states, this status can be acquired through marriage or birth. Others expect individuals to submit separate applications and meet additional eligibility standards.

Obtaining dual citizenship has its own specifics in each EU member state. The main factors to consider are:

  • Official arrangements. Particular European countries allow obtaining it if an agreement exists with another state. The Spanish government allows residents of Portugal, the Philippines, Andorra, Equatorial Guinea and France to hold this status.
  • Restrictions on public officials.Officials of some European countries oblige individuals to give up their second passport to be eligible for the most senior government posts. This occurs when their other nationality is non-European.
  • Acquisition methods. The legislation of certain European countries prohibits the opportunity to get dual citizenship through naturalization. Similarly, acquiring a passport via marriage has a number of peculiarities. A range of additional requirements may need to be met to obtain this status. Meanwhile, some European countries allow acquiring this status by descent. In Ireland, individuals can receive dual citizenship if they have Irish grandparents.
  • Requirements for acquisition. To be eligible to obtain a passport, applicants must learn the history and culture of the European country and demonstrate a sufficient level of language proficiency. Depending on the state's policies, a particular period of residence may also be mandatory to make an application.

Advantages of dual citizenship in the EU

Having dual citizenship in European countries enables individuals to possess several passports simultaneously. First and foremost, it means the possibility of free movement to numerous destinations around the world. As European country nationals, people can visit more than 170 destinations without a visa. Furthermore, holding dual citizenship allows to keep the native state’s passport, which further increases opportunities in this regard. Thus, it becomes possible to travel freely to those destinations where even EU nationals do not have visa-free access.

Benefits of dual citizenship for the immigrants

The main benefits of possessing dual citizenship in European countries are:

  • Possibility of studying at the best universities in the world under favorable conditions;
  • Accessibility of social welfare services in both the European country and state of origin;
  • Having an alternative place to relocate to in case of political or economic insecurity at home;
  • Opportunity to purchase property in European countries;
  • Right to vote and participate in the political life of both home and EU states.


Acquiring dual citizenship in one of the European countries is a legal right of any person with sufficient grounds for obtaining it. This status offers a wide range of opportunities to improve the quality of life and to integrate into another society. It brings security and freedom of movement, something that remains rather a privilege than the standard in many states. We recommend that you contact our immigration specialists to determine the most efficient routes for obtaining dual citizenship in European countries.

Migration Centr